分词（participle），包含现在分词（present participle）以及过去分词（past participle）。分词是动词的一种形式，放在句子中可以用来修饰名词，名词性短语，动词或者动词短语。修饰名词时，作用类似于形容词，修饰动词时，作用类似于副词。
现在分词属于非限定性动词（non-finite verb, also known as a verbal）。可以做定语，表语，补语，状语。
- 前置定语：The stories are usually about something funny you told the class or an interesting way you teach
- 后置定语：The World Cultures department contains ethnological collections featuring artifacts from the Canadian Northwest Coast, Plains, Inuit, and Woodlands cultures.
ü The museum is also Canada's largest field-research institution, conducting worldwide research and conservation activities.
ü Our son, Duncan, have been a stalwart of the park for the last ten years, taking over from me in the area of construction-and I'll say a little bit more about that in a moment-and his new wife, Judith, has also joined the team in charge of retail.
ü Every night I read for hours, using the lists of references that were given, and I made pages of notes.
ü Utilising the cheap and plentiful coal tar that was an almost unlimited byproduct of London’s gas street lighting, the dye works began producing the world’s first synthetically dyed material in 1857.
ü Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit.
ü Having identified this fundamental unit, Shannon set about defining otherwise vague ideas about information and how to transmit it from place to place.
这个句子中having identified this fundamental unit是完成分词(perfect participle)，表示的是已经完成了的动作。e.g.
Having finished his work, Harry was ready for play.
finish his work这个动作是已经完成了的，发生在主句的动词ready for play之前。
ü Working to deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries and to make his work one of heroic synthesis.
ü Being the best player in this field, he still practices over ten hours every single day.
ü These natural painkillers block pain signals from going to the brain, leading to a feeling of physical and emotional well-being.
ü I saw the child standing in the middle of the road.
1）在感官动词之后，如see, hear, watch, feel.
2）在使役动词之后，如have, get, catch, leave.
ü The argument is very convincing.
作表语的情况非常多，常见的词有Annoying, Boring, Confusing, Convincing等。