《思培考试中如何理解"名词性从句"》(上)

思培考试总体难度不高,这一点也体现在阅读中对于语法的要求。但是仍然有一些基础不是特别扎实的同学还是有一些语法上的问题,导致做阅读理解的时候有些吃力。今天我们对学生中存在较多问题的一种语法,名词性从句,做一个精简的分析。从而帮助学生用最简洁的方式,理解名词性从句。


思培阅读题中的名词性从句


在思培阅读中经常会看到名词性从句,这些名词性从句对于理解思培阅读,往往起着关键的作用。因此,这也是思培阅读获得高分必须理解的一个语法点。

e.g.

This is not what sovereignty looks like.

I think the fact that sweet drinks are the least popular really says something about our country's trend towards healthier choices in general.

Social media sites do have community standards, but, except in extreme cases, there’s little consensus on what’s socially appropriate to post and what isn’t.

many believe that parents should exercise some restraint in order to protect their children from future shame or ridicule stemming from online postings of their toddler pictures.

but these storms usually miss us, which is why you’ve read about just one.

They believe that people should have complete freedom in whether and how much they save for their old age, along with how they invest what they save.

上面第六句,仅这一句话中就包含了5个名词性从句,第一个名词性从句是that引导的宾语从句,第二和第三个名词性从句是whether和how much引导的介词宾语从句,第四个名词性从句是how引导的介词宾语从句,第五个名词性从句是what引导的宾语从句。



名词性从句


名词性从句(noun clause),是一个从句,在主句中充当的是名词的成分,相当于一个名词。那么名词在句子中可以充当主语,直接宾语,间接宾语,介词宾语,同位语。根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

名词性从句作主语:

What I am looking for is a position like HR Manager.

名词性从句作直接宾语:

You must choose which flavour of pop corn you want.

名词性从句作间接宾语:

I told him(that)he was wrong.

名词性从句作介词宾语:

Peter is not interested in whatever Amy says.

名词性从句作表语:

Michael's excuse was that he had forgotten to set his alarm.

名词性从句作同位语:

We are shocked by the fact that he got fired yesterday.

其中可以引导名词性从句的连接词有三类:连词(that, whether, if, as though, as if),连接代词(what/ whatever, who/ whoever, whom/ whomever, whose/whosever, which/ whichever)和连接副词(when/ whenever, where/ wherever, how/ however, why)。这些连接词,我们不需要去特别记忆,要想能够很好的掌握这些用法,还需要去看实际的句子,并且在自己的作文中使用,逐步形成对于名词性从句的认知感。

我们下面给出一些例子,帮助大家理解名词性从句。

v That

that引导宾语从句是最为大家所熟知的用法。

ü I remembered that his brother borrowed me a pencil.

另外that可以引导主语从句。

ü That he passed the exam was a big surprise.

that引导同位语从句。

ü I have no idea how they found the lost dog.

v whether/if

whether和if都可以表示“是否”,一些情况下可互换,口语中常用if。但是在下面一些情况下,只能使用whether。

ü I don’t know whether/if he will come or not.

ü I don’t know whether or not he will come.

× I don’t know if or not he will come.

whether和if都可以表示是否,做名词性从句,whether后面可以紧跟着or not,但是if不可以。

ü They don’t know whether to go there.

× They don’t know if to go there.

当后面接不定式的时候,只能用whether。

ü Whether he will come to my wedding or not makes no difference to me.

× If he will come to my wedding or not makes no difference to me.

当放在句首当做主语时,只能用whether。

ü I have no idea whether they will come.

× I have no idea if they will come.

作同位语时,只能使用whether而不能使用if。如果使用if那么会造成句子的歧义,使用if可以表示是否,也可以表示如果,句子意思都讲得通。所以在这种情况下,只能使用whether。

ü what I’m interested is whether you can come tomorrow.

× what I’m interested is if you can come tomorrow

作表语时,只能使用whether。

ü I haven't settled the question of whether I'll come to his party.

× I haven't settled the question of if I'll come to his party.

做介词宾语时,只能使用whether。

v as though/as if

ü They felt as though/as if they were told the wrong information.

ü You look as if/as though you’ve seen a ghost!

ü I spoke to her today and it sounded as if/as though she was getting a cold.

对于定语从句,状语从句,同学们了解的非常多,但是对于名词性从句,有不少同学的理解还不够全面,因此,在思培阅读中寻求突破,那么就需要对名词性从句有更加扎实的掌握。



——- 第一思培原创,请勿转载

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